Upcoming Events
There are no upcoming events currently scheduled.
Most popular articles

Main Menu
The Poultry industry
General Information
Health & diseases News
Poultry Diseases
Diagnostic guide
Photo Gallery
Discussion Forums
Poultry Glossary
Download Articles
Business Directory
International News
Big Liver and Spleen Disease present in UK poultry flock
Bird flu could spread to European poultry - FAO
New Probiotic Bacteria for Global Poultry Industry
David Nabarro warns of an inevitable influenza pandemic
FSA announces additions to Campylobacter strategy
Bulgaria reports new outbreaks of Newcastle disease
Bacteria inside red mites could be targeted to control poultry pests
Medicinal plants to treat poultry diseases
Most downloaded documents
file icon Biosecurity Basics (3286)
file icon Poultry Facility Biosecurity (2942)
file icon Biosecurity and Avian Influenza (2569)
Last Forum Topics

Wednesday, 16 April 2014
Home arrow Diagnostic guide arrow Digestive System


Organ or tissue involved

Key symptoms

Possible Condition

Associated symptoms; diagnostic aids

Digestive system


Sour crop; cheesy ulceration; “yellow buttons” of necrosis


Lesions also present in liver; disease most common in pigeons and wild doves; microscopic examination of lesions


Dropped crop

Genetic, Hot weather




Fish meal contaminated

Usually associated with heavy feeding of poor quality fish meal



Impaction; Vitamin deficiency or decomposed feed

Loss of weight


Presence of nails, wire and other foreign material in gizzard

Foreign bodies may protrude through gizzard wall

Bird usually emaciated; possible peritonitis


Thickened wall; white streaks on outer surface

Intestinal coccidiosis (E. acervulina)

Some diarrhea; emaciation if condition of long duration; seen in older birds


Inflammation; gut filled with mucus

Capillaria; Round-worms; tapeworms

Presence of worms in intestine; diarrhea; unthriftiness; microscopic examination for capillaria suggested.



Hexamitiasis (turkeys only); rare condition

Jejunum also affected; intestine filled wit watery contents; microscopic identification of protozoa in intestinal scrapings and fees


Swollen; white areas of necrosis

Avian Monocytosis (Nonspecific Infectious Enteritis; Bluecomb)

Hits pullets in early production; usually follows hot weather spells; head parts turn blue’ kidneys and ureters filled with urates

Jejunum and ileum

Swelling of middle third of intestine; mucus spotted with blood

Intestinal coccidiosis (E.necatrix)

Loss of appetite; chronic diarrhea; emaciation; mortality may be high


Lower half of intestine swollen; lumen filled with pink-tinged mucus

Intestinal coccidiosis (E. maxima)

Blood-spotted diarrhea; loss of appetite; emaciation; disease runs short course


Rectum and ceca inflamed

Intestinal Coccidiosis (E. brunetti)

Diarrhea; emaciation; some deaths


Swollen; yellow core; cheesy exudates; ulceration


High mortality in chicks 1 to 3 weeks of age, marked depression; diarrhea;  chicks huddle for warmth; nodules may be present in liver, heart and gizzard; white plaques on outside of intestine




Symptoms similar to pullorum; mortality may be high at 4 days or 10 to 12 days; no other lesions may be evident



Blackhead (Enterohepatitis)

Liver lesions also present; sulfur-colored droppings; darkened head parts




Watery, foamy stool; stiff, awkward gait; disease affects turkeys only


Swollen; filled with blood or blood clots; cheesy, blood-tinged exudates

Cecal Coccidiosis

Bloody droppings; loss of appetite; ruffled, unkempt appearance; high mortality, unless checked


Fluid in abdominal cavity (ascites)

Lymphoid Leukosis

Liver enlarged with tumors



Marek’s Disease

Nerve involvement



Gas leak brooders

Edema and ascites



Heart disease

Heart is enlarged or the heat sac is filled with caseous material; round heart


Hemorrhagic intestine, lymphoid areas

Velogenic Newcastle disease

These lesions usually associated with other findings and symptoms of respiratory distress


Thickened membranes over heart (pericarditis); abdominal cavity (peritonitis); and air sacs (airssacculitis)

See also Mycoplasma gallisepticum



Enteritis; diarrhea


Predominant cecal and liver lesions; sulfur-colored diarrhea




Affects young poults; foamy, watery diarrhea; birds may die in convulsions




Swollen liver and spleen; sudden deaths



Erysipelas (turkeys)

Hemorrhages in muscles and other tissues; snood and caruncle swollen in toms; septicemia in hens




Liver swollen. Light-colored, has necrotic spots, breaks apart easily when handled; high mortality rate



Avian Monocytosis

Chalky white, pasty urates in kidneys; ureters, and other serous surfaces; affects young pullets about to start to lay



Overdose of laxatives or chemicals

History  of faulty use of drugs




Deep ulcers filled with caseous material in intestinal tract; hard nodules (tubercles) in other organs of body



Hemorrhagic Disease

Bloody droppings; hemorrhagic areas in muscles of legs, breast and heart



Internal Parasites

Diarrhea; unthriftiness; presence of parasites I intestine




Sulfur-colored diarrhea; variable mortality; joints swollen, painful, filled with pus; liver may be green



Necrotic enteritis

Swollen intestine with necrotic lining (coninious lesion, mostly of posterior intestine)



Ulcerative enteritis

Inflammation of middle to lower intestine with ulcers (discrete lesions); may be yellow areas on liver


Yellow color; small gray-white areas of necrosis; presence of small nodules


High mortality in chicks 1 to 3 weeks of age; marked depression; diarrhea; nodules also may be present in lung, heart and gizzard


Slightly swollen, light-colored, “cooked” appearance; small gray-white sports of dead tissues (necrosis)

Fowl Cholera

Many birds die without warning; high morality rate


Swollen; light gray to white nodules (tumors with soft centers)

Lymphoid Leukosis or Marek’s Disease

Spleen, kidneys and other organs also may be involved


Swollen; large hard nodules


Bird emaciated; “razor” breasted; deep ulcers filled with cheesy exudate found in intestine; acid-fast stain, test entire flock within avian tuberculin


Greatly enlarged, friable (breaks apart easily); greenish-bronze color; gray-white sports of necrosis

Fowl Typhoid

Swollen spleen; comb and wattles pale; sudden deaths, birds may react to pullorum stained-antigen test


Round depressions or ulcers

Blackhead (Enterohepatitis)

Cecal walls thickened and ulcerated; yellow-green exudates; dry, cheesy core; sulfur-colored droppings


Enlarged; small areas of necrosis (gray-white sports of dead tissue); membrane over the liver

Ornithosis (Psittacosis)

Air sac involvement; enlarged spleen; lesions quite often missed; laboratory testing of blood samples recommended


Enlarged; greenish-rose in color

Synovitis (M. synoviae)

Swollen spleen; presence of pus in inflamed joints and extending along tendons


Swollen; yellow color; small areas of necrosis

Pullet Disease

Disease usually affects birds first starting to lay; “hot weather” disease; white, chalky deposits in pancreas, kidneys and ureters




Swollen, inflamed joints; acute form of disease characterized by sudden deaths and no apparent symptoms; isolation of causative organisms in laboratory will confirm diagnosis


Enlarged; hemorrhagic areas pinpoint in size and larger; areas turn yellow in color

Hepatitis (inclusion-body)

Affects young birds and pullets in production; low mortality; marked drop in egg production


Enlarged; covered with hemorrhagic areas

Duck Viral Hepatitis

Sudden onset; high mortality (90%) in ducklings under 4 weeks of age; kidneys appear mottled


Swollen liver

New Duck syndrome

Respiratory symptoms; nervous symptoms (incoordination); thickened membranes over heart (pericarditis); air sac involvement


Swollen, dark-mahogany colored, often with fine gray-colored streaks in a netlike arrangement

Vibrionic Hepatitis, Acute Lymphoid Leukosis or Marek’s Disease

Spleen also swollen; bone marrow usually gray colored or dark red and watery




High mortality in chicks 1 to 3 weeks of age; nodules or necrotic areas in liver, heart and gizzard; white plaques on outside of lower intestine




Primarily a disease of older birds; liver enlarged; bronze-mahogany color; many sudden deaths, high mortality




Liver swollen; greenish-rose color; pus in swollen joints and extending along tendons



Ornithosis (Psittacosis)

Liver enlarged; necrotic areas in liver; air sac involvement


Swollen; hemorrhagic

Erysipelas (turkeys)

Hemorrhages found in other tissues; snood and caruncle swollen; deaths may be sudden with no apparent symptoms, higher incidence of infection in toms


Swollen; presence of hard nodules with gritty centers


Similar lesions present in other organs; bird emaciated; ulcers filled with cheesy exudate found in intestine; flock should be tested with avian tuberculin


Swollen; presence of tumor-like masses with soft centers

Lymphoid Leukosis or Marek’s Disease

Liver and other organs infiltrated with similar lesions; fluid in abdominal cavity (ascites)



New Duck Syndrome

Respiratory symptoms; nervous symptoms (incoordination); thickened membranes over heart (pericarditis); air sac involvement


Swollen, dark-mahogany colored

Acute Lymphoid Leukosis or Marek’s Disease

Liver also swollen; bone marrow usually gray colored or of a dark-red consistency


Swollen; spotted

Spirochetosis (turkeys, chickens and ducks)

Liver swollen



Any septicemic disease




Random Photo

Chlamydiosis (Ornithosis): Enlargement of heart and liver and sever pericarditis are the most prominent lesions
Avian Influenza News
Avian influenza
Latest news on the avian influenza situation in humans around the world.
Bookmark Website
Bookmark Page
Make homepage
User Menubar

Login Form

Lost Password?
No account yet? Register


Excellent Acne Information source by a certified
dermatologist on Acne medicine and acne related topics