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Thursday, 24 April 2014
Home arrow Poultry Diseases arrow Avian Mycoplasmosis arrow Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Mycoplasma gallisepticum PDF Print E-mail
Saturday, 30 September 2006
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Mycoplasma gallisepticum
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Infected chickens may develop respiratory symptoms, including rales, coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, frothiness around the eyes, or difficulty breathing. The sever­ity of the symptoms varies; more severe infections are seen when the bird is infected concurrently with Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, Escherichia coli or other pathogens (5).

In uncomplicated cases in chickens, the lesions typically include mild sinusitis, tra­cheitis,  airsacculitis and mucus in the trachea. If the chicken is infected concurrently with Escherichia coli, thickening and turbidity of the air sacs, exudative accumulations, fibrinopurulent peri­carditis, and perihepatitis may be seen particularly in broilers (4).



 In chickens with uncomplicated infections, the morbidity rate is high while the mor­tality rate is low. If the birds are concurrently infected with other viruses or bacteria, the disease is more severe. Infections can also result in decreased productivity in the flock.

Financial losses are due to poor feed conversion, retarded growth, drug costs, mortality, increased culling and poor production (4).



Classification: MG is a pathogenic specie within the genus Mycoplasma of the family Mycoplasmataceae.

Growth requirements: MG requires a rather complex medium enriched with 10-15% heat-inactivated swine, avian or horse serum; in this experiment we are using swine serum. Several types of liquid or agar media will support growth of mycoplasmas of avian origin. Growth generally is optimal in medium at approximately pH 7,8 incubated at 37-38° C. Inclusion of phenol red & dextrose makes it possible to detect growth in tubes employed in mass culturing.


Colony Morphology: MG can be grown on serum-enriched agar medium inoculated with broth or agar culture material. It is often very difficult to obtain colony growth directly from original exudates. Inoculated agar plates must be incubated at 37° C in a very moist atmosphere for 3-5 days (5).


The following cumulative observations are needed for a final diagnosis of MG infection, namely, lesions, serology, isolation and identification of organism and demonstration of specific DNA (commercial PCR kit available). Culture requires inoculation in mycoplasma-free embryos or, more commonly in Mycoplasma Broth followed by plating out on Mycoplasma Agar. Suspected colonies may be identified by immuno-flourescence.

 Frey et al. (1968) developed a medium that incorporated all essential ingredients including 10-15% heat inactivated swine avian or horse serum, yeast autolysate and dextrose, necessary for M. gallisepticum growth. Evidence of colony growth is best studied with the aid of a dissecting microscope with an indirect lighting and characteristic colonies appear as tiny, smooth, circular translucent masses with a dense raised central area (Ley and Yoder, 1997).



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