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Monday, 20 April 2015
 
Home arrow Poultry Diseases arrow Avian Mycoplasmosis arrow Mycoplasma gallisepticum
 
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Mycoplasma gallisepticum PDF Print E-mail
Saturday, 30 September 2006
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Mycoplasma gallisepticum
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Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a pathogenic species within the genus Mycoplasma of the family Mycoplasmataceae.

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection, a common disease of poultry, is commonly designated as chronic respiratory disease (CRD) of chickens. Despite success in eliminating the disease in grand parent (GP) stock and turkeys, it persists in broiler breeders and broilers in many areas (1). Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a respiratory disease, affecting the entire respiratory tract, particularly the air sacs, where it is localized. It is mainly characterized by respiratory rales, coughing and nasal discharge. Clinical manifestations are usually slow to develop and the disease has a long course. All the air sacs may be involved, become cloudy in appearance, and filled with mucus. Similar exudates may encircle the heart and heart sac (2).


Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection is caused by an organism classified as a mycoplasma. This organism is similar to bacteria, but lacks a cell wall. This characteristic makes MG extremely fragile.

 This disease is found everywhere and is extremely important to both the broiler grower and the table-egg producer. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is especially serious in broiler chickens in which it often acts synergistically with other agents, such as respiratory viruses or pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli to provoke chronic respiratory disease. (3). While not a catastrophic disease it is one of significant economic importance. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is often a co-infection agent with other agents that makes the clinical signs of the other disease much worse. Infection of the air sacs in broilers is a cause for condemning the dressed birds as unsuitable for human consumption (2).

 The economic impact of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in broilers includes severely depressed growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. A result of reduced feed consumption is the loss of weight which will be worse in broilers (4).

 Mycoplasma gallisepticum problems are of high economic significance since respiratory tract lesions can cause high morbidity, high mortality and significant condemnation at slaughter and downgrading of carcass. MG may remain dormant and cause no disease until the chicken undergoes some stress, so the MG itself is not a killer, in fact, even morbidity is not great. However, an outbreak may be followed quickly by many secondary infections, and it is these that do the damage (5).



 

 

 
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Avian Influenza News
Avian influenza
Latest news on the avian influenza situation in humans around the world.
  • Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus ? China
    On 10 April 2015, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of China notified WHO of 20 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, including 4 deaths.

    Onset dates ranged from 14 February to 21 March 2015. Cases ranged in age from 32 to 80 years with a mean age of 55 years. Of these 20 cases, 15 (75%) were male. The majority (18 cases, 90%) reported exposure to live poultry. One case is a health care worker, who had also poultry exposure. No clusters were reported. Cases were reported from five provinces: Anhui (3), Fujian (2), Guangdong (4), Shandong (1), and Zhejiang (10).
  • Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus ? China
    On 9 March 2015, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of China notified WHO of 59 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, including 17 fatal cases. Onset dates ranged from 21 January to 25 February 2015. Below is a breakdown of the 59 cases included in this notification by epidemiological week of symptom onset:

    Of these 59 cases, 44 (75%) were male. The majority (49 cases, 83%) reported exposure to live poultry or live poultry markets; the exposure history of six cases is unknown or unavailable. Three family clusters were reported, each comprised of two cases; four of the six cases had exposure to live poultry or live poultry markets, one case had no exposure to poultry, and one case is still under investigation. Cases were reported from nine provinces: Anhui (4), Fujian (1), Guangdong (35), Guizhou (1), Hunan (2), Jiangsu (3), Jiangxi (1), Shanghai (1), and Zhejiang (11).
  • Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus ? China
    On 23 February 2015, the Department of Health, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China notified WHO of 1 additional laboratory-confirmed case of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus.

    A 61-year-old man from Hong Kong SAR developed symptoms on 16 February and consulted a private doctor on the same day. He was admitted to hospital on 20 February. The patient travelled to Zhangmutou, Dongguan, Guangdong, from 6 to 8 February and from 14 to 15 February. He visited a wet market on 14 February and bought two slaughtered chickens. Based on the available information, it is considered that the patient was infected outside Hong Kong. Currently, he is in critical condition.
  • Human infection with avian influenza A(H5N6) virus ? China
    On 9 February 2015, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of China notified WHO of 1 laboratory-confirmed case of human infection with avian influenza A(H5N6) virus.

    A 44-year-old male from Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province developed symptoms on 27 January. He was admitted to hospital on 3 February and died on 6 February. The patient had history of exposure to dead wild fowl. On 8 February, the specimen of the patient tested positive for avian influenza A(H5N6) by the China CDC.
  • Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus ? China
    On 4 February 2015, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of China notified WHO of 83 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. Onset dates ranged from 20 December 2014 to 27 January 2015. Below is a breakdown of the 83 cases included in this notification by epidemiological week of symptom onset:

    Cases ranged in age from 1 to 88 years with a median age of 56 years. Of the 83 cases, there were 19 deaths reported, ranged in age from 7 to 78 years with a mean age of 50 years. 60 of these 83 cases were male. The majority (78 cases, 93%) reported exposure to live poultry or live poultry markets; the exposure history of 4 cases is unknown.
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